16 2 lcd module free sample

We come across Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) displays everywhere around us. Computers, calculators, television sets, mobile phones, and digital watches use some kind of display to display the time.

An LCD screen is an electronic display module that uses liquid crystal to produce a visible image. The 16×2 LCD display is a very basic module commonly used in DIYs and circuits. The 16×2 translates a display of 16 characters per line in 2 such lines. In this LCD, each character is displayed in a 5×7 pixel matrix.

Contrast adjustment; the best way is to use a variable resistor such as a potentiometer. The output of the potentiometer is connected to this pin. Rotate the potentiometer knob forward and backward to adjust the LCD contrast.

A 16X2 LCD has two registers, namely, command and data. The register select is used to switch from one register to other. RS=0 for the command register, whereas RS=1 for the data register.

Command Register: The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to an LCD to do a predefined task. Examples like:

Data Register: The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD. When we send data to LCD, it goes to the data register and is processed there. When RS=1, the data register is selected.

Generating custom characters on LCD is not very hard. It requires knowledge about the custom-generated random access memory (CG-RAM) of the LCD and the LCD chip controller. Most LCDs contain a Hitachi HD4478 controller.

CG-RAM address starts from 0x40 (Hexadecimal) or 64 in decimal. We can generate custom characters at these addresses. Once we generate our characters at these addresses, we can print them by just sending commands to the LCD. Character addresses and printing commands are below.

LCD modules are very important in many Arduino-based embedded system designs to improve the user interface of the system. Interfacing with Arduino gives the programmer more freedom to customize the code easily. Any cost-effective Arduino board, a 16X2 character LCD display, jumper wires, and a breadboard are sufficient enough to build the circuit. The interfacing of Arduino to LCD display is below.

The combination of an LCD and Arduino yields several projects, the most simple one being LCD to display the LED brightness. All we need for this circuit is an LCD, Arduino, breadboard, a resistor, potentiometer, LED, and some jumper cables. The circuit connections are below.

16 2 lcd module free sample

Liquid Crystal Display(LCDs) provide a cost effective way to put a text output unit for a microcontroller. As we have seen in the previous tutorial, LEDs or 7 Segments do no have the flexibility to display informative messages.

This display has 2 lines and can display 16 characters on each line. Nonetheless, when it is interfaced with the micrcontroller, we can scroll the messages with software to display information which is more than 16 characters in length.

The LCD is a simple device to use but the internal details are complex. Most of the 16x2 LCDs use a Hitachi HD44780 or a compatible controller. Yes, a micrcontroller is present inside a Liquid crystal display as shown in figure 2.

It takes a ASCII value as input and generate a patter for the dot matrix. E.g., to display letter "A", it takes its value 0X42(hex) or 66(dec) decodes it into a dot matrix of 5x7 as shown in figure 1.

Power & contrast:Apart from that the LCD should be powered with 5V between PIN 2(VCC) and PIN 1(gnd). PIN 3 is the contrast pin and is output of center terminal of potentiometer(voltage divider) which varies voltage between 0 to 5v to vary the contrast.

Back-light: The PIN 15 and 16 are used as backlight. The led backlight can be powered through a simple current limiting resistor as we do with normal leds.

16 2 lcd module free sample

In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to interface ESP32 with an LCD display 16×2 without I2C. It can be useful in some projects, however, it’s not very common, due to the GPIO pins it does consume. But it’s going to be a good starting point if you’re new to Alphanumeric LCDs in general or just want to use the generic Arduino LiquidCrystal display library.

Alphanumeric LCD 16×2 display units are the most common and easiest solutions to get some data out of your microcontroller to the world to visually see. It’s a very cheap, easy to use, and reliable option to display strings of text/numbers to your system’s users.

The only downside to using the bare 16×2 LCD display is that it requires 6 dedicated GPIO pins of your microcontroller. In the case of our ESP32, it can be really annoying to lose 6 GPIO pins for adding only 1 LCD module to the project. However, in some projects, it can be a good option in case you don’t need the extra GPIO pins anyway.

The second most commonly preferred option is by using the I2C module with your LCD. This will reduce the GPIO pins requirement down to only 2 pins (the I2C pins SDA & SCL). Not only that, actually the 2 pins of that I2C bus can still access so many other I2C devices on the exact same bus.

You can end up having maybe 5 LCDs connected to your microcontroller using only 2 pins If you’re using that I2C module. But it’s the topic of the next tutorial. For this tutorial, we’ll be doing bare LCD interfacing in a classic way without an I2C IO expansion module.

This is the pinout for a typical LCD 16×2 display unit. It’s got 8 data lines (you can use only 4 of them or all of the 8). And remember that it needs to be powered from a +5v source despite the fact that our ESP32 is a 3.3v microcontroller device. This requirement is only for the power supply pins, not the data lines.

There are two ways to interface the LCD diver (controller) IC. You can use the full bus width (8-Bits) for data or alternatively you can use a 4-Bit interface for a reduced pin count needed to control the LCD. Specifically low pin count MCUs need to operate in the 4-Bit mode. And it’s the case for our ESP32 which has limited resources in terms of GPIO pin count.

The differences between 8-Bit mode and 4-Bit mode are that in the 8-Bit mode you’re operating the LCD at the full speed. While in 4-Bit mode, you send each data byte or command in two consecutive cycles instead of one. The other difference is the initialization routine steps. This is detailed in the full LCD article linked below.

If you’re interested in learning more about the LCD display, how it works, how does the LCD driver IC work (the circular black thing on the back), its internal registers, and more. Then, you should check outthis tutorial linked down below.

In that tutorial, we’ll be scrolling through the LCD driver datasheet, learning how it works, how to write a driver firmware library for it, and build our own library in Embedded-C with PIC microcontrollers from scratch and test it out in a couple of LABs.

In this section, I’ll give you a brief description of the LiquidCrystal library that we’ll be using in this tutorial. And it’s basic API functions to initialize and write some text on any LCD. We’ll be using the generic LiquidCrystal library (not the I2C version) which is similar to any other Arduino LCD example code you’ve seen online.

The Arduino LiquidCrystal library gives you all the functionalities that you’d need from an LCD driver and it’s very easy to use in your projects. Here are the exact steps you need to follow in order to initialize and write to an LCD in your project code (in Arduino IDE).

Step2– Create an LCD object. In which you’ll define the GPIO pins to be used for the various LCD signals (6 pins). This is done in code as shown below

Step3– Now, you need to initialize the LCD in the Setup function, and it’s better to clear the display to make sure there are no random characters on the visible display. In this step, you also define the number of rows and columns for your display. There are many versions of this LCD display not only 16×2, there are 16×4, 20×4, and maybe others.

Step4– Now, our LCD is properly initialized and ready for displaying any data or executing any commands. To write something on the LCD you can use the LCD_object.print() function. As you can see in the example code down below

We use the LCD_object.setCursor() function to set the cursor position, so the next LCD write operation occurs exactly at that location. And that’s it! Here is how it looks like in real-life testing.

The diagram down below shows you the connection between ESP32 and the LCD 16×2 display (in 4-Bit data mode). Note that the LCD requires a +5v supply and the ESP32 is a 3.3v board, however, it’s got the USB Vbus available on the Vin pin. So, we’ll be using the Vin pin as a +5v source (it’s measured to be 4.7v but it’s sufficient indeed).

The code example down below does the following: We start with including the LiquidCrystal library, then create an LCD object and initialize it. Then, we’ll write to the home position “Hello World!”, and move the cursor to the middle of the 2nd row and write “GG izi”. And nothing to be done in the main loop() function.

Choose the board, COM port, hold down the BOOT button, click upload and keep your finger on the BOOT button pressed. When the Arduino IDE starts sending the code, you can release the button and wait for the flashing process to be completed. Now, the ESP32 is flashed with the new firmware.

The LCD display’s controller (Hitachi HD44780) supports up to 8 custom characters that you can create and store on the LCD itself. Then you can send the Index of each custom character to be displayed later. Maybe 8 custom characters are not enough for your project, but it’s one little extra feature that you can occasionally use.

You can also check the ESP32 Course Home Page