2 lcd monitors in the front quotation

Straight quotes are the two generic ver­ti­cal quo­ta­tion marks lo­cated near the re­turn key: the straight sin­gle quote (") and the straight dou­ble quote (").

Curly quotes are the quo­ta­tion marks used in good ty­pog­ra­phy. There are four curly quote char­ac­ters: the open­ing sin­gle quote (‘), the clos­ing sin­gle quote (’), the open­ing dou­ble quote (“), and the clos­ing dou­ble quote (”).Win­dows To use the alt codes, hold down the alt key and type the four-digit char­ac­ter code on your nu­meric key­pad (num lock must be activated).

”closing double quotealt 0148option + shift + [”Most bad habits en­demic to dig­i­tal ty­pog­ra­phy are for­mer type­writer habits. They arose from ne­ces­sity, not be­cause any­one liked them. Af­ter all, were type­writ­ers ever used to type­set books, mag­a­zines, or news­pa­pers? Nope.

Straight quotes are a type­writer habit. In tra­di­tional print­ing, all quo­ta­tion marks were curly. But type­writer char­ac­ter sets were lim­ited by me­chan­i­cal con­straints and phys­i­cal space. By re­plac­ing the curly open­ing and clos­ing quotes with am­bidex­trous straight quotes, two slots be­came avail­able for other characters.

Word proces­sors are not lim­ited in this way. You can al­ways get curly quotes. Com­pared to straight quotes, curly quotes are more leg­i­ble on the page and match the other char­ac­ters bet­ter. There­fore, straight quotes should never, ever ap­pear in your documents."That"s a"magic"shoe."wrong

For­tu­nately, avoid­ing straight quotes is easy: use your word proces­sor’s smart-quote fea­ture, which will sub­sti­tute curly quotes au­to­mat­i­cally. Smart quotes are typ­i­cally turned on by default.

Smart-quote sub­sti­tu­tion has been built into word proces­sors for nearly 30 years. That’s why straight quotes are one of the most griev­ous and in­ept ty­po­graphic errors.

When you paste or im­port text with straight quotes in it, your word proces­sor may not al­ways con­vert the straight quotes prop­erly. Fix them.One caveat: if you’ve cor­rected any apos­tro­phes that ap­pear at the start of a word (Patent ’211, ’70s rock), this tip will goof them up again. So fix the quotes first, then the apostrophes.

How to convert all quotes to curly quotesUse the search-and-re­place func­tion to search for all in­stances of the straight sin­gle quote (") and re­place it with the same char­ac­ter—a straight sin­gle quote (").

Use the search-and-re­place func­tion to search for all in­stances of the straight dou­ble quote (") and re­place it with the same char­ac­ter—a straight dou­ble quote (").

Be­fore you say“that won’t do any­thing”, try it. When your word proces­sor re­places each quo­ta­tion mark, it also per­forms the straight-to-curly conversion.You can also en­ter curly quotes into HTML doc­u­ments us­ing the key short­cuts above. They’re non-ASCII glyphs, how­ever, so you need to spec­ify a non-ASCII en­cod­ing for the file (like UTF‑8), oth­er­wise they’ll get gar­bled on decode.

HTML & CSS have no au­to­matic fa­cil­ity for con­vert­ing straight quotes to curly. But in­sert­ing these char­ac­ters us­ing HTML es­cape codes is dreary.

If you use a CMS like Word­Press, plu­g­ins are avail­able that han­dle this au­to­mat­i­cally. There are also JavaScript-based con­vert­ers that work in the browser. If you’re tempted to write your own straight-to-curly con­verter, re­con­sider—the good ones cover tricky edge cases that you’re apt to miss on your own.

An­other op­tion is to use the lit­tle-known q tag, which au­to­mat­i­cally ap­pends curly quotes to the en­closed el­e­ments. So Hello ren­ders as Hello. Two caveats. First, a par­ent el­e­ment (like html) must have a lang at­tribute (like lang="en") so the q tag knows what kind of curly quotes to use. Sec­ond, this change in markup re­moves the quote marks from the char­ac­ter stream, and doesn’t help with apos­tro­phes, so it may be a long drive for a short day at the beach.

by the wayStraight quotes are ac­cept­able in email. It’s hard to see the dif­fer­ence be­tween straight and curly quotes on screen at small sizes. And if you’re typ­ing with thumbs on a smart­phone, it can be ir­ra­tionally dif­fi­cult to in­sert them.

Some older dig­i­tal doc­u­ments are stored with dou­ble quotes made of two sin­gle quotes (" ") or two grave ac­cents (``). (The grave ac­cent, also some­times called a back­tick, is that char­ac­ter above the tab key you’ve never used.) These can be fixed by adapt­ing the search-and-re­place tech­nique de­scribed above.

Quo­ta­tion marks are an area of vast ty­po­graphic di­ver­sity among other lan­guages—both the glyphs used and how they’re spaced. Now you know why quote-curl­ing al­go­rithms have to be smart.

Con­fi­den­tial to com­puter sci­en­tists and doc­u­men­ta­tion writ­ers: straight quotes and back­ticks in soft­ware code should never be con­verted to curly quotes. Those marks are, of course, part of the code syn­tax and must be re­pro­duced lit­er­ally. In par­tic­u­lar, though fans of La­TeX have of­ten writ­ten me to trum­pet its type­set­ting su­pe­ri­or­ity, I’ve never seen any La­TeX-cre­ated doc­u­men­ta­tion that’s got­ten this right.

2 lcd monitors in the front quotation

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2 lcd monitors in the front quotation

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2 lcd monitors in the front quotation

I am (obviously) new to LaTeX and have about 40 pages of text where it seems like half the quote marks are going the wrong way for American English. The opening and closing quotes are both pointing the same way (as if they were all closing quotes). I copied some text from MS Word to texmaker, but I believe that"s unrelated because this version, with my headers and newly typed text, does the same thing (using PDFLatex):

The single quote in "I"d" is curled right and so is the double quote after !. But the one before Thanks goes the wrong way. They all appear to be straight in the editor window.

My understanding is that little inline quotes like this is not what \quote{} is for. Is there some way to fix that doesn"t involve going through all 40 pages with a fine-toothed comb?

2 lcd monitors in the front quotation

Quotation marks (also known as quotes, quote marks, speech marks, inverted commas, or talking markspunctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character.

The single quotation mark is traced to Ancient Greek practice, adopted and adapted by monastic copyists. Isidore of Seville, in his seventh century encyclopedia, diplé (a chevron):

[13] ⟩ Diple. Hanc scriptores nostri adponunt in libris ecclesiasticorum virorum ad separanda vel [ad] demonstranda testimonia sanctarum Scripturarum.

[13] ⟩ Diplé. Our copyists place this sign in the books of the people of the Church, to separate or to indicate the quotations drawn from the Holy Scriptures.

The double quotation mark derives from a marginal notation used in fifteenth-century manuscript annotations to indicate a passage of particular importance (not necessarily a quotation); the notation was placed in the outside margin of the page and was repeated alongside each line of the passage.Aristotle, which appeared in 1483 or 1484, the Milanese Renaissance humanist Francesco Filelfo marked literal and appropriate quotes with oblique double dashes on the left margin of each line.Non-verbal loansSpecific language features below) is a remnant of this. In most other languages, including English, the marginal marks dropped out of use in the last years of the eighteenth century. The usage of a pair of marks, opening and closing, at the level of lower case letters was generalized.

Guillemets by the Bulletin de l’Agence générale des colonies, No. 302, May 1934, showing the usage of a pair of marks, opening and closing, at the level of lower case letters.

By the nineteenth century, the design and usage began to be specific to each region. In Western Europe the custom became to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity of each mark aimed outward. In Britain those marks were elevated to the same height as the top of capital letters: “…”.

In France, by the end of the nineteenth century, the marks were modified to an angular shape: «…». Some authorsGreek breathing marks, the Armenian emphasis and apostrophe, the Arabic comma, the decimal separator, the thousands separator, etc. Other authorstypographical color, since the quotation marks had the same height and were aligned with the lower case letters.

The curved quotation marks ("66-99") usage, “…”, was exported to some non-Latin scripts, notably where there was some English influence, for instance in Native American scriptsIndic scripts.Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic and Ethiopic adopted the French "angular" quotation marks, «…». The Far East angle bracket quotation marks, 《…》, are also a development of the in-line angular quotation marks.

In Central Europe, the practice was to use the quotation mark pairs with the convexity aimed inward. The German tradition preferred the curved quotation marks, the first one at the level of the commas, the second one at the level of the apostrophes: „…“. Alternatively, these marks could be angular and in-line with lower case letters, but still pointing inward: »…«. Some neighboring regions adopted the German curved marks tradition with lower–upper alignment, while some adopted a variant with the convexity of the closing mark aimed rightward like the opening one, „…”.

In Eastern Europe,«…» and the German tradition „…“. The French tradition prevailed in Eastern Europe (Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus), whereas the German tradition, or its modified version with the convexity of the closing mark aimed rightward, has become dominant in Southeastern Europe, e.g. in the Balkan countries.

The reemergence of single quotation marks around 1800 came about as a means of indicating a secondary level of quotation.‹…›, became obsolete, being replaced by double curved ones: “…”, though the single ones still survive, for instance, in Switzerland. In Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the curved quotation marks, „…“, are used as a secondary level when the angular marks, «…» are used as a primary level.

Mention in another work of the title of a short or subsidiary work, such as a chapter or an episode: "Encounter at Farpoint" was the pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation.

In American writing, quotation marks are normally the double kind (the primary style). If quotation marks are used inside another pair of quotation marks, then single quotation marks are used. For example: "Didn"t she say "I like red best" when I asked her wine preferences?" he asked his guests. If another set of quotation marks is nested inside single quotation marks, double quotation marks are used again, and they continue to alternate as necessary (though this is rarely done).

Different varieties and styles of English have different conventions regarding whether terminal punctuation should be written inside or outside the quotation marks. North American printing usually puts full stops and commas (but not colons, semicolons, exclamation or question marks) inside the closing quotation mark, whether it is part of the original quoted material or not.house style.

"…" and "…" are known as neutral, vertical, straight, typewriter, dumb, or ASCII quotation marks. The left and right marks are identical. These are found on typical English typewriters and computer keyboards, although they are sometimes automatically converted to the other type by software.

‘…’ and “…” are known as typographic, curly, curved, book, or smart quotation marks. (The doubled ones are more informally known as "66 and 99".manuscript, printing, and typesetting. Type cases (of any language) generally have the curved quotation mark metal types for the respective language, and may lack the vertical quotation mark metal types. Because most computer keyboards lack keys to enter typographic quotation marks directly, much that is written using word-processing programs has vertical quotation marks. The "smart quotes" feature in some computer software can convert vertical quotation marks to curly ones, although sometimes imperfectly.

The closing single quotation mark is identical in form to the apostrophe and similar to the prime symbol. The double quotation mark is identical to the ditto mark in English-language usage. It is also similar to—and often used to represent—the double prime symbol. These all serve different purposes.

kavichki) (or standartni/dvoyni kavichki) for the main types of quotation marks (also called double quotation mark(s)), and edinichni/vtorichni kavichki) for the secondary quotation marks (also called single quotation mark(s)).

Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese agree on the names of the vertical rectangle quotation marks (﹁…﹂ and ﹃…﹄) but disagree on which pair being the primary one.

In Simplified Chinese, rectangle quotation marks are only used in vertical texts. The horizontal rectangle quotation marks are not commonly used in Simplified Chinese, and in the rare cases where they are used, often the convention of Traditional Chinese is followed.

In Traditional Chinese, curly quotation marks are not commonly used, and in the rare cases where they are used, often the convention of Simplified Chinese is followed.

Contemporary Bulgarian employs em dash or quotation horizontal bar ( followed by a space characer) at the beginning of each direct-speech segment by a different character in order to mark direct speech in prose and in most journalistic question and answer interviews; in such cases, the use of standard quotation marks is left for in-text citations or to mark the names of institutions, companies, and sometimes also brand or model names.

Air quotes are also widely used in face-to-face communication in contemporary Bulgarian but usually resemble " ... " (secondary: " ... ") unlike written Bulgarian quotation marks.

Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.

You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Dutch Wikipedia article at [[:nl:Aanhalingsteken]]; see its history for attribution.

The standard form in the preceding table is taught in schools and used in handwriting. Most large newspapers have kept these low-high quotation marks, „ and ”; otherwise, the alternative form with single or double English-style quotes is now often the only form seen in printed matter. Neutral (straight) quotation marks, " and ", are used widely, especially in texts typed on computers and on websites.

Although not generally common in the Netherlands any more, double angle (guillemet) quotation marks are still sometimes used in Belgium. Examples include the Flemish HUMO magazine and the Metro newspaper in Brussels.

The symbol used as the left (typographical) quote in English is used as the right quote in Germany and Austria and a "low double comma" „ (not used in English) is used for the left quote. Its single quote form ‚ looks like a comma.

Some fonts, e.g. Verdana, were not designed with the flexibility to use an English left quote as a German right quote. Such fonts are therefore typographically incompatible with this German usage.

This style of quoting is also used in Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Estonian, Georgian, Icelandic, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Slovene and in Ukrainian. In Bulgarian, Icelandic, Estonian, Lithuanian, and Russian, single quotation marks are not used.

Sometimes, especially in novels, guillemets (angle quotation mark sets) are used in Germany and Austria (albeit in reversed order compared to French): »A ›B‹?«

In Finnish and Swedish, right quotes, called citation marks, ”…”, are used to mark both the beginning and the end of a quote. Double right-pointing angular quotes, »…», can also be used.

Alternatively, an en-dash followed by a (non-breaking) space can be used to denote the beginning of quoted speech, in which case the end of the quotation is not specifically denoted (see section Quotation dash below). A line-break should not be allowed between the en-dash and the first word of the quotation.

French uses angle quotation marks (guillemets, or duck-foot quotes), adding a "quarter-em space"non-breaking space, because the difference between a non-breaking space and a four-per-em is virtually imperceptible (but also because the Unicode quarter-em space is breakable), and the quarter-em glyph is omitted from many fonts. Even more commonly, many people just put a normal (breaking) space between the quotation marks because the non-breaking space cannot be accessed easily from the keyboard; furthermore, many are simply not aware of this typographical refinement. Using the wrong type of space often results in a quotation mark appearing alone at the beginning of a line, since the quotation mark is treated as an independent word.

Sometimes, for instance on several French news sites such as Catalan, Polish, Portuguese, Ukrainian, or in German, French and Italian as written in Switzerland:

French double angle quotes (left and right), legacy (approximative) spacing usual on the web, with normal (four per em) no-break space (justifying, thus inappropriate)

French double angle quotes (left and right), correct spacing used by typographers, with narrow (six per em) non-breaking spaces, represented on the web using narrow no-break space

French single angle quotes (left and right), alternate form for embedded quotations, legacy (approximative) spacing usual on the web, with normal (four per em) no-break space (justifying, thus inappropriate)

French single angle quotes (left and right), alternate form for embedded quotations, correct spacing used by typographers, with narrow (six per em) non-breaking spaces, represented on the web using narrow no-break space

Guillemets by the Imprimerie nationale in Bulletin de l’Agence générale des colonies, No. 302, Mai 1934, showing the comma-shaped symbols sitting on the baseline.

Initially, the French guillemet characters were not angle shaped but also used the comma (6/9) shape. They were different from English quotes because they were standing (like today"s guillemets) on the baseline (like lowercase letters), and not above it (like apostrophes and English quotation marks) or hanging down from it (like commas). At the beginning of the nineteenth century, this shape evolved to look like (( small parentheses )). The angle shape appeared later to increase the distinction and avoid confusions with apostrophes, commas and parentheses in handwritten manuscripts submitted to publishers. Unicode currently does not provide alternate codes for these 6/9 guillemets on the baseline, as they are considered to be form variants of guillemets, implemented in older French typography (such as the Didot font design). Also there was not necessarily any distinction of shape between the opening and closing guillemets, with both types pointing to the right (like today"s French closing guillemets).

They must be used with non-breaking spaces, preferably narrow, if available, i.e. U+202F narrow no-break space which is present in all up-to-date general-purpose fonts, but still missing in some computer fonts from the early years of Unicode, due to the belated encoding of U+202F (1999) after the flaw of not giving U+2008 punctuation space non-breakable property as it was given to the related U+2007 figure space.

Legacy support of narrow non-breakable spaces was done at rendering level only, without interoperability as provided by Unicode support. High-end renderers as found in Desktop Publishing software should therefore be able to render this space using the same glyph as the breaking thin space U+2009, handling the non-breaking property internally in the text renderer/layout engine, because line-breaking properties are never defined in fonts themselves; such renderers should also be able to infer any width of space, and make them available as application controls, as is done with justifying/non-justifying.

In old-style printed books, when quotations span multiple lines of text (including multiple paragraphs), an additional closing quotation sign is traditionally used at the beginning of each line continuing a quotation; any right-pointing guillemet at the beginning of a line does not close the current quotation. This convention has been consistently used since the beginning of the 19th century by most book printers, but is no longer in use today. Such insertion of continuation quotation marks occurred even if there is a word hyphenation break. Given this feature has been obsoleted, there is no support for automatic insertion of these continuation guillemets in HTML or CSS, nor in word-processors. Old-style typesetting is emulated by breaking up the final layout with manual line breaks, and inserting the quotation marks at line start, much like pointy brackets before quoted plain text e-mail:

The French Imprimerie nationale (cf. Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l"Imprimerie nationale, presses de l"Imprimerie nationale, Paris, 2002) does not use different quotation marks for nesting quotes:

The use of English quotation marks is increasing in French and usually follows English rules, for instance in situations when the keyboard or the software context doesn"t allow the use of guillemets. The French news site

But the most frequent convention used in printed books for nested quotations is to style them in italics. Single quotation marks are much more rarely used, and multiple levels of quotations using the same marks is often considered confusing for readers:

Further, running speech does not use quotation marks beyond the first sentence, as changes in speaker are indicated by a dash, as opposed to the English use of closing and re-opening the quotation. (For other languages employing dashes, see section Quotation dash below.) The dashes may be used entirely without quotation marks as well. In general, quotation marks are extended to encompass as much speech as possible, including not just nonverbal text such as "he said" (as previously noted), but also as long as the conversion extends. The quotation marks end at the last spoken text rather than extending to the end of paragraphs when the final part is not spoken.

« Je ne vous parle pas, monsieur, dit-il. : — Mais je vous parle, moi ! » s’écria le jeune homme exaspéré de ce mélange d’insolence et de bonnes manières, de convenance et de dédain. (Dumas, Les trois mousquetaires)

According to current recommendation by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences the main Hungarian quotation marks are comma-shaped double quotation marks set on the base-line at the beginning of the quote and at apostrophe-height at the end of it for first level, („Quote”), reversed »French quotes« without space (the German tradition) for the second level, and thus the following nested quotation pattern emerges:

In Israel, the original practice was to use modified German-style „low-high” quote marks, however since the 1990s, American-style "quote marks" have become the standard. (Note that Hebrew is written from right to left.)

According to current PN-83/P-55366 standard from 1983 (but not dictionaries, see below), Typesetting rules for composing Polish text (Zasady składania tekstów w języku polskim) one can use either „ordinary Polish quotes” or «French quotes» (without space) for first level, and ‚single Polish quotes’ or «French quotes» for second level, which gives three styles of nested quotes:

There is no space on the internal side of quote marks, with the exception of 1⁄4 1⁄4 em) space between two quotation marks when there are no other characters between them (e.g. ,„ and ’”).

The rules on the use of guillemets conflict with the Polish punctuation standard as given by dictionaries, including the Wielki Słownik Ortograficzny PWN recommended by the Polish Language Council. The PWN rules state:

In specific uses, guillemets also appear. Guillemet marks pointing inwards are used for highlights and in case a quotation occurs inside a quotation. Guillemet marks pointing outwards are used for definitions (mainly in scientific publications and dictionaries), as well as for enclosing spoken lines and indirect speech, especially in poetic texts.

In Polish books and publications, this style for use of guillemets (also known as »German quotes«) is used almost exclusively. In addition to being standard for second level quotes, guillemet quotes are sometimes used as first level quotes in headings and titles but almost never in ordinary text in paragraphs.

Another style of quoting is to use an em-dash to open a quote; this is used almost exclusively to quote dialogues, and is virtually the only convention used in works of fiction.

— Ta nazwa ma pewnie swoją historię — stwierdził w końcu. — W innych okolicznościach chętnie bym jej wysłuchał. Ale chciałbym porozmawiać z tobą, kowalu, o twoim synu.

“A name with a story behind it,” he said at last, “which were circumstances otherwise I would be pleased to hear. But I would like to speak to you, smith, about your son.”

Neither the Portuguese language regulator nor the Brazilian prescribe what is the shape for quotation marks, they only prescribe when and how they should be used.

In Brazil, angular quotation marks are rare, and curved quotation marks (“quote” and ‘quote’) are almost always used. This can be verified by the difference between a Portuguese keyboard (which possesses a specific key for « and for ») and a Brazilian keyboard.

In Belarusian, Russian, and Ukrainian, the angled quotation (Belarusian: «двукоссе», Russian: «кавычки», Ukrainian: «лапки») marks are used without spaces. In case of quoted material inside a quotation, rules and most noted style manuals prescribe the use of different kinds of quotation marks.

"And, of course, you can"t avoid using a dictionary. One of my acquaintances, a poet and literary critic, once jokingly said: "I prefer to read dictionaries than poems. The dictionary has the same words as in the poem, but is presented in a systematic way". It"s a joke, but "reading dictionaries" is not as amazing and bizarre as it may seem."

Corner brackets are well-suited for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages which are written in both vertical and horizontal orientations. China, South Korea, and Japan all use corner brackets when writing vertically. Usage differs when writing horizontally:

In Mainland China, English-style quotes (full width “”) are official and prevalent; corner brackets are rare today. The Unicode codepoints used are the English quotes (rendered as fullwidth by the font), not the fullwidth forms.

In the Chinese language, double angle brackets are placed around titles of books, documents, movies, pieces of art or music, magazines, newspapers, laws, etc. When nested, single angle brackets are used inside double angle brackets. With some exceptions, this usage parallels the usage of italics in English:

This style is particularly common in Bulgarian, French, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, and Vietnamese.James Joyce always insisted on this style, although his publishers did not always respect his preference. Alan Paton used this style in Charles Frazier used this style for his novel

The dash is often combined with ordinary quotation marks. For example, in French, a guillemet may be used to initiate running speech, with a dash to indicate each change in speaker and a closing guillemet to mark the end of the quotation.

The Ægypt Sequence by John Crowley, in extracts from the fictional writings of the character Fellowes Kraft, a historical novelist. According to another character, Kraft used dashes to indicate imaginary dialogue that was not documented in the original sources.

Dave Eggers, in which spoken dialogues are written with the typical English quotation marks, but dialogues imagined by the main character (which feature prominently) are written with quotation dashes

In Italian, Catalan, Portuguese, Spanish, Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Lithuanian and Hungarian, the reporting clause in the middle of a quotation is separated with two additional dashes (also note that the initial quotation dash is followed by a single whitespace character as well as the fact that the additional quotation dashes for the middle main clause after the initial quotation dash are all with a single whitespace character on both of their sides):

"You are a good one!" remarked Oblonsky, laughing. "And you call me a Nihilist! But it won"t do, you know; you must confess and receive the sacrament."

The Unicode standard introduced a separate character U+2015― HORIZONTAL BAR to be used as a quotation dash. It may be the same length as an em-dash, which is often used instead. Some software will insert a line break after an em-dash, but not after a quotation dash. Both are displayed in the following table.

"Ambidextrous" or "straight" quotation marks " " were introduced on typewriters to minimise the number of keys on the keyboard, and were inherited by computer keyboards and character sets. The ASCII character set, which has been used on a wide variety of computers since the 1960s, only contains a straight single quote (U+0027" APOSTROPHE) and double quote (U+0022" QUOTATION MARK).

Many systems, such as the personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s, actually drew these ASCII quotes like closing quotes on-screen and in printouts, so text would appear like this (approximately):

These same systems often drew the backtick (the free standing character U+0060` GRAVE ACCENT) as an "open quote" glyph (usually a mirror image so it still sloped in the direction of a grave accent). Using this character as the opening quote gave a typographic approximation of curved single quotes. Nothing similar was available for the double quote, so many people resorted to using two single quotes for double quotes, which would look approximately like the following:

The typesetting application TeX uses this convention for input files. The following is an example of TeX input which yields proper curly quotation marks.

The Unicode standard added codepoints for slanted or curved quotes (U+201C“ LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK and U+201D” RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK, described further below), shown here for comparison:

The Unicode mapping for PostScript Standard Encoding preserves the typographic approximation convention by mapping its equivalent of ASCII grave and single-quote to the Unicode curly quotation mark characters.

In typewriter keyboards, the curved quotation marks were not implemented. Instead, to save space, the straight quotation marks were invented as a compromise. Even in countries that did not use curved quotation marks, angular quotation marks were not implemented either

Computer keyboards followed the steps of typewriter keyboards. Most computer keyboards do not have specific keys for curved quotation marks or angled quotation marks. This may also have to do with computer character sets:

IBM character sets generally do not have curved quotation mark characters, therefore, keys for the curved quotation marks are absent in most IBM computer keyboards.

Microsoft followed the example of IBM in its character set and keyboard design. Curved quotation marks were implemented later in Windows character sets, but most Microsoft computer keyboardsAlt Gr key or both the Alt key and the numeric keypad, they are accessible through a series of keystrokes that involve these keys.their Unicode code points are available; see Unicode input.

Macintosh character sets have always had curved quotation marks available. Nevertheless, these are mostly accessible through a series of keystrokes, involving the ⌥ Opt key.

Historically, support for curved quotes was a problem in information technology, primarily because the widely used ASCII character set did not include a representation for them.

The term "smart quotes", “…”, is from the name in several word processors of a function aimed this problem: automatically converting straight quotes typed by the user into curved quotes, the feature attempts to be "smart" enough to determine whether the punctuation marked opening or closing. Since curved quotes are the typographically correct ones,Unicode was widely accepted and supported, this meant representing the curved quotes in whatever 8-bit encoding the software and underlying operating system was using. The character sets for Windows and Macintosh used two different pairs of values for curved quotes, while ISO 8859-1 (historically the default character set for the Unixes and older Linux systems) has no curved quotes, making cross-platform and -application compatibility difficult.

Performance by these "smart quotes" features was far from perfect overall (variance potential by e.g. subject matter, formatting/style convention, user typing habits). As many word processors (including Microsoft Word and OpenOffice.org) have the function enabled by default, users may not have realized that the ASCII-compatible straight quotes they were typing on their keyboards ended up as something different (conversely users could incorrectly assume its functioning in other applications, e.g. composing emails).

The curved apostrophe is the same character as the closing single quote.opening single quotes. (An example of this error appears in the advertisements for the television show

Unicode support has since become the norm for operating systems. Thus, in at least some cases, transferring content containing curved quotes (or any other non-ASCII characters) from a word processor to another application or platform has been less troublesome, provided all steps in the process (including the clipboard if applicable) are Unicode-aware. But there are still applications which still use the older character sets, or output data using them, and thus problems still occur.

There are other considerations for including curved quotes in the widely used markup languages HTML, XML, and SGML. If the encoding of the document supports direct representation of the characters, they can be used, but doing so can cause difficulties if the document needs to be edited by someone who is using an editor that cannot support the encoding. For example, many simple text editors only handle a few encodings or assume that the encoding of any file opened is a platform default, so the quote characters may appear as the generic replacement character � or "mojibake" (gibberish). HTML includes a set of entities for curved quotes: ‘ (left single), ’ (right single or apostrophe), ‚ (low 9 single), “ (left double), ” (right double), and „ (low 9 double). XML does not define these by default, but specifications based on it can do so, and XHTML does. In addition, while the HTML 4, XHTML and XML specifications allow specifying numeric character references in either hexadecimal or decimal, SGML and older versions of HTML (and many old implementations) only support decimal references. Thus, to represent curly quotes in XML and SGML, it is safest to use the decimal numeric character references. That is, to represent the double curly quotes use “ and ”, and to represent single curly quotes use ‘ and ’. Both numeric and named references function correctly in almost every modern browser. While using numeric references can make a page more compatible with outdated browsers, using named references are safer for systems that handle multiple character encodings (i.e. RSS aggregators and search results).

In Windows file and folder names, the straight double quotation mark is prohibited, as it is a reserved character. The curved quotation marks, as well as the straight single quotation mark, are permitted.

The style of quoting known as Usenet quoting uses the greater-than sign, > prepended to a line of text to mark it as a quote. This convention was later standardized in RFC 3676, and was adopted subsequently by many email clients when automatically including quoted text from previous messages (in plain text mode).

In Unicode, 30 characters are marked Quotation Mark=Yes by character property.Ps, Pe, Pi, Pf, Po). Several other Unicode characters with quotation mark semantics lack the character property.

These codes for vertical-writing characters are for presentation forms in the Unicode CJK compatibility forms section. Typical documents use normative character codes which are shown for the horizontal writing in this table, and applications are usually responsible to render correct forms depending on the writing direction used.

in 1st or 2nd level access, i.e., specific key or using the ⇧ Shift key; not 3rd or 4th level access, i.e., using Alt Gr key or ⌥ Opt key, in conjunction or not with the ⇧ Shift key.

To use non ASCII characters in e-mail and on Usenet the sending mail application generally needs to set a MIME type specifying the encoding. In most cases (the exceptions being if UTF-7 is used or if the 8BITMIME extension is present), this also requires the use of a content-transfer encoding. (Mozilla Thunderbird allows insertion of HTML code such as ‘ and ” to produce typographic quotation marks; see below.)

Also sometimes used by 18th- and 19th-century printers for the small "c" for Scottish names, e.g. M‘Culloch rather than McCulloch.Dictionary of Australasian Biography, page 290 (Wikisource).

The same U+2019 code point and glyph is used for typographic (curly) apostrophes. Both U+0027 and U+2019 are ambiguous about distinguishing punctuation from apostrophes.

Lunsford, Susan (2001). 100 Skill-Building Lessons Using 10 Favorite Books: A Teacher"s Treasury of Irresistible Lessons & Activities That Help Children Meet Learning Goals In Reading, Writing, Math & More. Teaching Strategies. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-439-20579-5.

Pedro Uribe Echeverria (7 August 2009). "Deux-points et guillemets : le " procès-verbal "". . Retrieved 5 June 2020. Dans le chapitre sur les symboles graphiques, Isidore évoque la diplè (chevron, en grec) : " > Diplè : nos copistes placent ce signe dans les livres des gens d"Eglise pour séparer ou pour signaler les citations tirées des Saintes Ecritures."

Giordano Castellani (2008). Stephan Füssel (ed.). Francesco Filelfo"s "Orationes et Opuscula", 1483/1484. The first example of quotation marks in print?. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Kelkar, Ashok R. (31 January 1990). "Punctuation and other marks in marathi writing : a functional analysis". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. Pune, India: Vice Chancellor, Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute (deemed university). 50: 263–75. ISSN 0045-9801. JSTOR 42931389. OCLC 564132924.

"The English Project"s History of English Punctuation". www.englishproject.org. 2016. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018. Revised text of a lecture given on 13 October 2015.

Нацыянальны цэнтр прававой інфармацыі Рэспублікі Беларусь (2010). Правілы беларускай арфаграфіі і пунктуацыі (in Belarusian). Minsk: Нацыянальны цэнтр прававой інфармацыі Рэспублікі Беларусь.

Institute for the Bulgarian Language (2002). Principles and Rules of Spelling Orthography and Punctuation in the Bulgarian Language (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

"Punctuation usage, Use of punctuation marks". yys.ac.cn. State Technical Supervision Bureau (for National Standards of People"s Republic of China). 13 December 1995. Archived from the original on 9 September 2006.

"Retskrivningsregler: § 58. Anførselstegn" [Rules of orthography: § 58. Quotation marks]. dsn.dk (in Danish). Dansk Sprognævn. Retrieved 3 January 2013.

Commission on the Filipino Language (2009). Gabay sa Ortograpiyang Filipino (in Filipino). Manila: Commission on the Filipino Language. ISBN 978-971-8705-97-1.

Sanmartín Rei, Goretti et all (2006). "Criterios para o uso da lingua" (PDF). A Coruña: Universidade da Coruña; Servizo de Publicacións; Servizo de Normalización Lingüística. p. 51.

Tim Pengembang Pedoman Bahasa Indonesia (2016). Pedoman umum ejaan bahasa Indonesia [General guidelines for Indonesian spelling system] (PDF) (in Indonesian) (4th ed.). Jakarta: Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa. pp. 53–55. ISBN 978-979-069-262-6.

"О переводе алфавита казахского языка с кириллицы на латинскую графику" [On the change of the alphabet of the Kazakh language from the Cyrillic to the Latin script] (in Russian). President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.

Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică „Iorgu Iordan“, Îndreptar ortografic, ortoepic și de punctuație, ediția a V-a, Univers Enciclopedic, București, 1995

Trung tâm Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn Quốc gia, ed. (2002). "Các dấu câu trong tiếng Việt" [Punctuation marks in Vietnamese]. Ngữ pháp tiếng Việt [Vietnamese grammar] (in Vietnamese). Social Sciences Publishing House. pp. 287–292.

"Zasady pisowni i interpunkcji". Wielki Słownik Ortograficzny (online edition). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN SA. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.

This system follows the rules laid down in section 5.10 of the orthography guide Ortografía de la lengua española Archived 2009-01-26 at the Wayback Machine published by the Real Academia Española (RAE).

2 lcd monitors in the front quotation

In English writing, quotation marks or inverted commas, also known informally as quotes, talking marks,punctuation marks placed on either side of a word or phrase in order to identify it as a quotation, direct speech or a literal title or name. Quotation marks may be used to indicate that the meaning of the word or phrase they surround should be taken to be different from (or, at least, a modification of) that typically associated with it, and are often used in this way to express irony. (For example, in the sentence "The lunch lady plopped a glob of "food" onto my tray." the quotation marks around the word food show it is being called that ironically.) They also sometimes appear to be used as a means of adding emphasis, although this usage is usually considered incorrect.

Quotation marks are written as a pair of opening and closing marks in either of two styles: single (‘...’) or double (“...”). Opening and closing quotation marks may be identical in form (called neutral, vertical, straight, typewriter, or "dumb" quotation marks), or may be distinctly left-handed and right-handed (typographic or, colloquially, curly quotation marks); see quotation mark glyphs for details. Typographic quotation marks are usually used in manuscript and typeset text. Because typewriter and computer keyboards lack keys to directly enter typographic quotation marks, much of typed writing has neutral quotation marks. Some computer software has the feature often called "smart quotes" which can, sometimes imperfectly, convert neutral quotation marks to typographic ones.

The typographic closing double quotation mark and the neutral double quotation mark are similar to – and sometimes stand in for – the ditto mark and the double prime symbol. Likewise, the typographic opening single quotation mark is sometimes used to represent the ʻokina while either the typographic closing single quotation mark or the neutral single quotation mark may represent the prime symbol. Characters with different meanings are typically given different visual appearance in typefaces that recognize these distinctions, and they each have different Unicode code points. Despite being semantically different, the typographic closing single quotation mark and the typographic apostrophe have the same visual appearance and code point (U+2019), as do the neutral single quote and typewriter apostrophe (U+0027).glyphs of the same character.)

In the first centuries of typesetting, quotations were distinguished merely by indicating the speaker, and this can still be seen in some editions of the Christian Bible. During the Renaissance, quotations were distinguished by setting in a typeface contrasting with the main body text (often italic type with roman, or the other way around). Long quotations were also set this way, at full size and full measure.

Quotation marks were first cut in metal type during the middle of the sixteenth century, and were used copiously by some printers by the seventeenth. In some Baroque and Romantic-period books, they would be repeated at the beginning of every line of a long quotation. When this practice was abandoned, the empty margin remained, leaving the modern form of indented block quotation.

In Early Modern English, quotation marks were used to denote pithy comments. They were used to quote direct speech as early as the late sixteenth century, and this practice became more common over time.

Single or double quotation marks denote either speech or a quotation. Double quotes are preferred in the United States, and also tend to be preferred in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Single quotes are more usual in the United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa, though double quotes are also common there.

In many cases, quotations that span multiple paragraphs are set as block quotations, and thus do not require quotation marks. However, quotation marks are used for multiple-paragraph quotations in some cases, especially in narratives, where the convention in English is to give opening quotation marks to the first and each subsequent paragraph, using closing quotation marks only for the final paragraph of the quotation, as in the following example from

"I wish you joy. If you love Mr. Darcy half as well as I do my dear Wickham, you must be very happy. It is a great comfort to have you so rich, and when you have nothing else to do, I hope you will think of us. I am sure Wickham would like a place at court very much, and I do not think we shall have quite money enough to live upon without some help. Any place would do, of about three or four hundred a year; but however, do not speak to Mr. Darcy about it, if you had rather not.

When quoted text is interrupted, such as with the phrase he said, a closing quotation mark is used before the interruption, and an opening quotation mark after. Commas are also often used before and after the interruption, more often for quotations of speech than for quotations of text:

Quotation marks are not used for indirect speech. This is because indirect speech can be a paraphrase; it is not a direct quote, and in the course of any composition, it is important to document when one is using a quotation versus when one is just giving content, which may be paraphrased, and which could be open to interpretation.

Quotes indicating verbal irony, or other special use, are sometimes called scare quotes. They are sometimes gestured in oral speech using air quotes, or indicated in speech with a tone change or by replacement with supposed[ly] or so-called.

In addition to conveying a neutral attitude and to call attention to a neologism, or slang, or special terminology (also known as jargon), quoting can also indicate words or phrases that are descriptive but unusual, colloquial, folksy, startling, humorous, metaphoric, or contain a pun: Dawkins"s concept of a meme could be described as an "evolving idea".

People also use quotation marks in this way to distance the writer from the terminology in question so as not to be associated with it, for example to indicate that a quoted word is not official terminology, or that a quoted phrase presupposes things that the author does not necessarily agree with; or to indicate special terminology that should be identified for accuracy"s sake as someone else"s terminology, as when a term (particularly a controversial term) pre-dates the writer or represents the views of someone else, perhaps without judgement (contrast this neutrally distancing quoting to the negative use of scare quotes).

A three-way distinction is occasionally made between normal use of a word (no quotation marks), referring to the concept behind the word (single quotation marks), and the word itself (double quotation marks):

Precise writing about language often uses italics for the word itself and single quotation marks for a gloss, with the two not separated by a comma or other punctuation,logical quotation around the gloss – extraneous terminal punctuation outside the quotation marks – even in North American publications, which might otherwise prefer them inside:

Quotation marks, rather than italics, are generally used for the titles of shorter works. Whether these are single or double depends on the context; however, many styles, especially for poetry, prefer the use of single quotation marks.

As a rule, the title of a whole publication is italicised (or, in typewritten text, underlined), whereas the titles of minor works within or a subset of the larger publication (such as poems, short stories, named chapters, journal papers, newspaper articles, TV show episodes, video game levels, editorial sections of websites, etc.) are written with quotation marks.

Quotation marks can also set off a nickname embedded in an actual name, or a false or ironic title embedded in an actual title; for example, Nat "King" Cole, Frank "Chairman of the Board" Sinatra, or Simone Rizzo "Sam the Plumber" DeCavalcante.

Quotes are sometimes used for emphasis in lieu of underlining or italics, most commonly on signs or placards. This usage can be confused with ironic or altered-usage quotation, sometimes with unintended humor. For example, For sale: "fresh" fish, "fresh" oysters, could be construed to imply that fresh is not used with its everyday meaning, or indeed to indicate that the fish or oysters are anything but fresh. As another example, Cashiers" desks open until noon for your "convenience" could be interpreted to mean that the convenience was for the bank employees, not the customers.

With regard to quotation marks adjacent to periods and commas, there are two styles of punctuation in widespread use. These two styles are most commonly referred to as "American" and "British", or sometimes "typesetters" quotation" and "logical quotation". Both systems have the same rules regarding question marks, exclamation points, colons, and semicolons. However, they differ in the treatment of periods and commas.

In all major forms of English, question marks, exclamation marks, semicolons, and any other punctuation (with the possible exceptions of periods and commas, as explained in the sections below) are placed inside or outside the closing quotation mark depending on whether they are part of the quoted material.

A convention is the use of square brackets to indicate content between the quotation marks that has been modified from, or was not present in, the original material.

The prevailing style in the United Kingdom – called British style,logical quotation,logical punctuationoriginal quoted material and in which the punctuation mark fits with the sense of the quotation, but otherwise to place punctuation outside the closing quotation marks.according to the sense."

When dealing with direct speech, British placement depends on whether or not the quoted statement is complete or a fragment. According to the British style guide Butcher"s Copy-editing, American style should be used when writing fiction.are part of the person"s speech are permitted inside the quotation marks regardless of whether the material is fiction.

According to the hackers (members of a subculture of enthusiastic programmers) switched to what they later discovered to be the British quotation system because placing a period inside a quotation mark can change the meaning of data strings that are meant to be typed character-for-character.

Some American style guides specific to certain specialties also prefer the British style.Linguistic Society of America requires that the closing quotation mark precede the period or comma unless that period or comma is "a necessary part of the quoted matter".Wikipedia and Pitchfork use logical punctuation.

When dealing with words-as-words, short-form works, and sentence fragments, standard American style places periods and commas inside the quotation marks:

This style also places periods and commas inside the quotation marks when dealing with direct speech, regardless of whether the work is fiction or non-fiction:

Nevertheless, many American style guides explicitly permit periods and commas outside the quotation marks when the presence of the punctuation mark inside the quotation marks leads to ambiguity, such as when describing keyboard input, as in the following example:

The American style is recommended by the Modern Language Association"s AIP Style Manual, the American Medical Association"s AMA Manual of Style, the American Political Science Association"s APSA Style Manual, the Associated Press" The AP Guide to Punctuation, and the Canadian Public Works" The Canadian Style.

In both major styles, regardless of placement, only one end mark (?, !, or .) can end a sentence. Only the period, however, may not end a quoted sentence when it does not also end the enclosing sentence, except for literal text:

With narration of direct speech, both styles retain punctuation inside the quotation marks, with a full stop changing into a comma if followed by attributive matter, also known as a speech tag or annunciatory clause. Americans tend to apply quotations when signifying doubt of veracity (sarcastically or seriously), to imply another meaning to a word or to imply a cynical take on a paraphrased quotation, without punctuation at all.

Primary quotations are orthographically distinguished from secondary quotations that may be nested within a primary quotation. British English often uses single quotation marks to identify the outermost text of a primary quotation versus double quotation marks for inner, nested quotations. By contrast, American English typically uses double quotation marks to identify the outermost text of a primary quotation versus single quotation marks for inner, nested quotations.

In English, when a quotation follows other writing on a line of text, a space precedes the opening quotation mark unless the preceding symbol, such as an em dash, requires that there be no space. When a quotation is followed by other writing on a line of text, a space follows the closing quotation mark unless it is immediately followed by other punctuation within the sentence, such as a colon or closing punctuation. (These exceptions are ignored by some Asian computer systems that systematically display quotation marks with the included spacing, as this spacing is part of the fixed-width characters.)

There is generally no space between an opening quotation mark and the following word, or a closing quotation mark and the preceding word. When a double quotation mark or a single quotation mark immediately follows the other, proper spacing for legibility may suggest that a thin space ( ) or larger non-breaking space ( ) be inserted.

This is not common practice in mainstream publishing, which will generally use more precise kerning. It is more common in online writing, although using CSS to create the spacing by kerning is more semantically appropriate in Web typography than inserting extraneous spacing characters.

Straight quotation marks (or italicised straight quotation marks) are often used to approximate the prime and double prime, e.g. when signifying feet and inches or arcminutes and arcseconds. For instance, 5 feet and 6 inches is often written 5" 6"; and 40 degrees, 20 arcminutes, and 50 arcseconds is written 40° 20" 50". When available, however, primes should be used instead (e.g. 5′ 6″, and 40° 20′ 50″). Prime and double prime are not present in most code pages, including ASCII and Latin-1, but are present in Unicode, as characters U+2032′ PRIME and U+2033″ DOUBLE PRIME. The HTML character entity references are ′ and ″, respectively.

Straight single and double quotation marks are used in most programming languages to delimit strings or literal characters, collectively known as string literals. In some languages (e.g. Pascal) only one type is allowed, in some (e.g. C and its derivatives) both are used with different meanings and in others (e.g. Python) both are used interchangeably. In some languages, if it is desired to include the same quotation marks used to delimit a string inside the string, the quotation marks are doubled. For example, to represent the string eat "hot" dogs in Pascal one uses "eat ""hot"" dogs". Other languages use an escape character, often the backslash, as in "eat \"hot\" dogs".

In the TeX typesetting program, left double quotes are produced by typing two back-ticks (``) and right double quotes by typing two apostrophes (""). This is a continuation of a typewriter tradition of using ticks for opening quotation marks; see Quotation mark § Typewriters and early computers.

Standard English computer keyboard layouts inherited the single and double straight quotation marks from the typewriter (the single quotation mark also doubling as an apostrophe), and they do not include individual keys for left-handed and right-handed typographic quotation marks. In character encoding terms, these characters are labeled below). Generally, this smart quote feature is enabled by default, and it can be turned off in an "options" or "preferences" dialog. Some websites do not allow typographic quotation marks or apostrophes in posts. One can skirt these limitations, however, by using the HTML character codes or entitiesWindows, AutoHotkey scripts can be used to assign simpler key combinations to opening and closing quotation marks.

To make typographic quotation marks easier to enter, publishing software often automatically converts typewriter quotation marks (and apostrophes) to typographic form during text entry (with or without the user being aware of it). Out-of-the-box behavior on macOS and iOS is to make this conversion. These are known as smart quotes (“...”). Straight quotation marks are also retronymically called dumb quotes ("...").

The method for producing smart quotes may be based solely on the character preceding the mark. If it is a space or another of a set of hard-coded characters or if the mark begins a line, the mark will be rendered as an opening quote; if not, it will be rendered as a closing quote or apostrophe. This method can cause errors, especially for contractions that start with an apostrophe or text with nested quotations:

In Windows, if it is necessary to follow a space with a closing quotation mark when Smart Quotes is in effect, it is usually sufficient to input the character using the Alt code shown above rather than typing " or ".

Lunsford, Susan (December 2001). 100 skill-building lessons using 10 favorite books : a teacher"s treasury of irresistible lessons & activities that help children meet learning goals in reading, writing, math and more. p. 10. ISBN 0439205794.

Butcher, Judith; Drake, Caroline; Leach, Maureen (2006). Butcher"s Copy-editing: The Cambridge Handbook for Editors, Copy-editors and Proofreaders (4th ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-521-84713-1.

"Language Style Sheet" (PDF). Linguistic Society of America. 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2018. 4. Punctuation: a. ... The second member of a pair of quotation marks should precede any other adjacent mark of punctuation, unless the other mark is a necessary part of the quoted matter .... 6. Cited Forms: ... e. After the first occurrence of non-English forms, provide a gloss in single quotation marks: Latin ovis ‘sheep’ is a noun. No comma precedes the gloss and no comma follows, unless necessary for other reasons: Latin ovis ‘sheep’, canis ‘dog’, and equus ‘horse’ are nouns.

Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers. Council of Biology Editors / Cambridge University Press. 2002. ISBN 9780521471541. Retrieved 21 December 2018. In the British style (OUP 1983), all signs of punctuation used with words and quotation marks must be placed according to the sense.

"Journal of Irish and Scottish Studies" (PDF). University of Aberdeen, Scotland: Research Institute of Irish and Scottish Studies. 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2018. Punctuation marks are placed inside the quotation marks only if the sense of the punctuation is part of the quotation; this system is referred to as logical quotation.

Brinck, Tom; Gergle, Darren; Wood, Scott W. (2002). Usability for the Web. Morgan Kaufmann. p. 277. doi:10.1016/B978-1-55860-658-6.X5000-7. ISBN 978-1-55860-658-6.

Other style guides and reference volumes include the following: U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (2008, p. 217), US Department of Education"s IES Style Guide (2005, p. 43), The Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing (1997, p. 148), International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, International Reading Association Style Guide, American Dialect Society, Association of Legal Writing Directors" ALWD Citation Manual, The McGraw-Hill Desk Reference by K. D. Sullivan (2006, p. 52), Webster"s New World Punctuation by Geraldine Woods (2005, p. 68), The New Oxford Guide to Writing by Thomas S. Kane (1994, pp. 278, 305, 306), Merriam-Webster"s Manual for Writers and Editors by Merriam-Webster (1998, p. 27), Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers by Lynn Troyka, et al