tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

The TFT-LCD (Flat Panel) Antitrust Litigationclass-action lawsuit regarding the worldwide conspiracy to coordinate the prices of Thin-Film Transistor-Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) panels, which are used to make laptop computers, computer monitors and televisions, between 1999 and 2006. In March 2010, Judge Susan Illston certified two nationwide classes of persons and entities that directly and indirectly purchased TFT-LCDs – for panel purchasers and purchasers of TFT-LCD integrated products; the litigation was followed by multiple suits.

TFT-LCDs are used in flat-panel televisions, laptop and computer monitors, mobile phones, personal digital assistants, semiconductors and other devices;

In mid-2006, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) Antitrust Division requested FBI assistance in investigating LCD price-fixing. In December 2006, authorities in Japan, Korea, the European Union and the United States revealed a probe into alleged anti-competitive activity among LCD panel manufacturers.

The companies involved, which later became the Defendants, were Taiwanese companies AU Optronics (AUO), Chi Mei, Chunghwa Picture Tubes (Chunghwa), and HannStar; Korean companies LG Display and Samsung; and Japanese companies Hitachi, Sharp and Toshiba.cartel which took place between January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2006, and which was designed to illegally reduce competition and thus inflate prices for LCD panels. The companies exchanged information on future production planning, capacity use, pricing and other commercial conditions.European Commission concluded that the companies were aware they were violating competition rules, and took steps to conceal the venue and results of the meetings; a document by the conspirators requested everybody involved "to take care of security/confidentiality matters and to limit written communication".

Companies directly affected by the LCD price-fixing conspiracy, as direct victims of the cartel, were some of the largest computer, television and cellular telephone manufacturers in the world. These direct action plaintiffs included AT&T Mobility, Best Buy,Costco Wholesale Corporation, Good Guys, Kmart Corp, Motorola Mobility, Newegg, Sears, and Target Corp.Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. § 26) to prevent Defendants from violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act (15 U.S.C. § 1), as well as (b) 23 separate state-wide classes based on each state"s antitrust/consumer protection class action law.

In November 2008, LG, Chunghwa, Hitachi, Epson, and Chi Mei pleaded guilty to criminal charges of fixing prices of TFT-LCD panels sold in the U.S. and agreed to pay criminal fines (see chart).

The South Korea Fair Trade Commission launched legal proceedings as well. It concluded that the companies involved met more than once a month and more than 200 times from September 2001 to December 2006, and imposed fines on the LCD manufacturers.

Sharp Corp. pleaded guilty to three separate conspiracies to fix the prices of TFT-LCD panels sold to Dell Inc., Apple Computer Inc. and Motorola Inc., and was sentenced to pay a $120 million criminal fine,

Seven executives from Japanese and South Korean LCD companies were indicted in the U.S. Four were charged with participating as co-conspirators in the conspiracy and sentenced to prison terms – including LG"s Vice President of Monitor Sales, Chunghwa"s chairman, its chief executive officer, and its Vice President of LCD Sales – for "participating in meetings, conversations and communications in Taiwan, South Korea and the United States to discuss the prices of TFT-LCD panels; agreeing during these meetings, conversations and communications to charge prices of TFT-LCD panels at certain predetermined levels; issuing price quotations in accordance with the agreements reached; exchanging information on sales of TFT-LCD panels for the purpose of monitoring and enforcing adherence to the agreed-upon prices; and authorizing, ordering and consenting to the participation of subordinate employees in the conspiracy."

On December 8, 2010, the European Commission announced it had fined six of the LCD companies involved in a total of €648 million (Samsung Electronics received full immunity under the commission"s 2002 Leniency Notice) – LG Display, AU Optronics, Chimei, Chunghwa Picture and HannStar Display Corporation.

On July 3, 2012, a U.S. federal jury ruled that the remaining defendant, Toshiba Corporation, which denied any wrongdoing, participated in the conspiracy to fix prices of TFT-LCDs and returned a verdict in favor of the plaintiff class. Following the trial, Toshiba agreed to resolve the case by paying the class $30 million.

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or textual form. A discrete monitor comprises a visual display, support electronics, power supply, housing, electrical connectors, and external user controls.

The display in modern monitors is typically an LCD with LED backlight, having by the 2010s replaced CCFL backlit LCDs. Before the mid-2000s,CRT. Monitors are connected to the computer via DisplayPort, HDMI, USB-C, DVI, VGA, or other proprietary connectors and signals.

Originally, computer monitors were used for data processing while television sets were used for video. From the 1980s onward, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and video, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality. In the 2000s, the typical display aspect ratio of both televisions and computer monitors has changed from 4:3 to 16:9.

Modern computer monitors are mostly interchangeable with television sets and vice versa. As most computer monitors do not include integrated speakers, TV tuners, nor remote controls, external components such as a DTA box may be needed to use a computer monitor as a TV set.

Early electronic computer front panels were fitted with an array of light bulbs where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of a particular register bit inside the computer. This allowed the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights came to be known as the "monitor". As early monitors were only capable of displaying a very limited amount of information and were very transient, they were rarely considered for program output. Instead, a line printer was the primary output device, while the monitor was limited to keeping track of the program"s operation.

Multiple technologies have been used for computer monitors. Until the 21st century most used cathode-ray tubes but they have largely been superseded by LCD monitors.

The first computer monitors used cathode-ray tubes (CRTs). Prior to the advent of home computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a video display terminal (VDT) using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the workstation in a single large chassis, typically limiting them to emulation of a paper teletypewriter, thus the early epithet of "glass TTY". The display was monochromatic and far less sharp and detailed than on a modern monitor, necessitating the use of relatively large text and severely limiting the amount of information that could be displayed at one time. High-resolution CRT displays were developed for specialized military, industrial and scientific applications but they were far too costly for general use; wider commercial use became possible after the release of a slow, but affordable Tektronix 4010 terminal in 1972.

Some of the earliest home computers (such as the TRS-80 and Commodore PET) were limited to monochrome CRT displays, but color display capability was already a possible feature for a few MOS 6500 series-based machines (such as introduced in 1977 Apple II computer or Atari 2600 console), and the color output was a speciality of the more graphically sophisticated Atari 800 computer, introduced in 1979. Either computer could be connected to the antenna terminals of an ordinary color TV set or used with a purpose-made CRT color monitor for optimum resolution and color quality. Lagging several years behind, in 1981 IBM introduced the Color Graphics Adapter, which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 × 200 pixels, or it could produce 640 × 200 pixels with two colors. In 1984 IBM introduced the Enhanced Graphics Adapter which was capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 × 350.

By the end of the 1980s color progressive scan CRT monitors were widely available and increasingly affordable, while the sharpest prosumer monitors could clearly display high-definition video, against the backdrop of efforts at HDTV standardization from the 1970s to the 1980s failing continuously, leaving consumer SDTVs to stagnate increasingly far behind the capabilities of computer CRT monitors well into the 2000s. During the following decade, maximum display resolutions gradually increased and prices continued to fall as CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium, partly because it remained cheaper to produce.

There are multiple technologies that have been used to implement liquid-crystal displays (LCD). Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops where the lower power consumption, lighter weight, and smaller physical size of LCDs justified the higher price versus a CRT. Commonly, the same laptop would be offered with an assortment of display options at increasing price points: (active or passive) monochrome, passive color, or active matrix color (TFT). As volume and manufacturing capability have improved, the monochrome and passive color technologies were dropped from most product lines.

The first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices. As prices declined they became more popular, and by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors. Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors was the Eizo FlexScan L66 in the mid-1990s, the SGI 1600SW, Apple Studio Display and the ViewSonic VP140vision science remain dependent on CRTs, the best LCD monitors having achieved moderate temporal accuracy, and so can be used only if their poor spatial accuracy is unimportant.

High dynamic range (HDR)television series, motion pictures and video games transitioning to widescreen, which makes squarer monitors unsuited to display them correctly.

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitors provide most of the benefits of both LCD and CRT monitors with few of their drawbacks, though much like plasma panels or very early CRTs they suffer from burn-in, and remain very expensive.

Radius of curvature (for curved monitors) - is the radius that a circle would have if it had the same curvature as the display. This value is typically given in millimeters, but expressed with the letter "R" instead of a unit (for example, a display with "3800R curvature" has a 3800mm radius of curvature.

Dot pitch represents the distance between the primary elements of the display, typically averaged across it in nonuniform displays. A related unit is pixel pitch, In LCDs, pixel pitch is the distance between the center of two adjacent pixels. In CRTs, pixel pitch is defined as the distance between subpixels of the same color. Dot pitch is the reciprocal of pixel density.

Pixel density is a measure of how densely packed the pixels on a display are. In LCDs, pixel density is the number of pixels in one linear unit along the display, typically measured in pixels per inch (px/in or ppi).

Contrast ratio is the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the monitor is capable of producing simultaneously. For example, a ratio of 20,000∶1 means that the brightest shade (white) is 20,000 times brighter than its darkest shade (black). Dynamic contrast ratio is measured with the LCD backlight turned off. ANSI contrast is with both black and white simultaneously adjacent onscreen.

Color depth - measured in bits per primary color or bits for all colors. Those with 10bpc (bits per channel) or more can display more shades of color (approximately 1 billion shades) than traditional 8bpc monitors (approximately 16.8 million shades or colors), and can do so more precisely without having to resort to dithering.

Viewing angle is the maximum angle at which images on the monitor can be viewed, without subjectively excessive degradation to the image. It is measured in degrees horizontally and vertically.

Refresh rate is (in CRTs) the number of times in a second that the display is illuminated (the number of times a second a raster scan is completed). In LCDs it is the number of times the image can be changed per second, expressed in hertz (Hz). Determines the maximum number of frames per second (FPS) a monitor is capable of showing. Maximum refresh rate is limited by response time.

Response time is the time a pixel in a monitor takes to change between two shades. The particular shades depend on the test procedure, which differs between manufacturers. In general, lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts such as ghosting. Grey to grey (GtG), measured in milliseconds (ms).

On two-dimensional display devices such as computer monitors the display size or view able image size is the actual amount of screen space that is available to display a picture, video or working space, without obstruction from the bezel or other aspects of the unit"s design. The main measurements for display devices are: width, height, total area and the diagonal.

With the introduction of flat panel technology, the diagonal measurement became the actual diagonal of the visible display. This meant that an eighteen-inch LCD had a larger viewable area than an eighteen-inch cathode-ray tube.

Estimation of monitor size by the distance between opposite corners does not take into account the display aspect ratio, so that for example a 16:9 21-inch (53 cm) widescreen display has less area, than a 21-inch (53 cm) 4:3 screen. The 4:3 screen has dimensions of 16.8 in × 12.6 in (43 cm × 32 cm) and area 211 sq in (1,360 cm2), while the widescreen is 18.3 in × 10.3 in (46 cm × 26 cm), 188 sq in (1,210 cm2).

Until about 2003, most computer monitors had a 4:3 aspect ratio and some had 5:4. Between 2003 and 2006, monitors with 16:9 and mostly 16:10 (8:5) aspect ratios became commonly available, first in laptops and later also in standalone monitors. Reasons for this transition included productive uses for such monitors, i.e. besides Field of view in video games and movie viewing, are the word processor display of two standard letter pages side by side, as well as CAD displays of large-size drawings and application menus at the same time.LCD monitors and the same year 16:10 was the mainstream standard for laptops and notebook computers.

In 2011, non-widescreen displays with 4:3 aspect ratios were only being manufactured in small quantities. According to Samsung, this was because the "Demand for the old "Square monitors" has decreased rapidly over the last couple of years," and "I predict that by the end of 2011, production on all 4:3 or similar panels will be halted due to a lack of demand."

The resolution for computer monitors has increased over time. From 280 × 192 during the late 1970s, to 1024 × 768 during the late 1990s. Since 2009, the most commonly sold resolution for computer monitors is 1920 × 1080, shared with the 1080p of HDTV.2560 × 1600 at 30 in (76 cm), excluding niche professional monitors. By 2015 most major display manufacturers had released 3840 × 2160 (4K UHD) displays, and the first 7680 × 4320 (8K) monitors had begun shipping.

Every RGB monitor has its own color gamut, bounded in chromaticity by a color triangle. Some of these triangles are smaller than the sRGB triangle, some are larger. Colors are typically encoded by 8 bits per primary color. The RGB value [255, 0, 0] represents red, but slightly different colors in different color spaces such as Adobe RGB and sRGB. Displaying sRGB-encoded data on wide-gamut devices can give an unrealistic result.Exif metadata in the picture. As long as the monitor gamut is wider than the color space gamut, correct display is possible, if the monitor is calibrated. A picture which uses colors that are outside the sRGB color space will display on an sRGB color space monitor with limitations.Color management is needed both in electronic publishing (via the Internet for display in browsers) and in desktop publishing targeted to print.

Most modern monitors will switch to a power-saving mode if no video-input signal is received. This allows modern operating systems to turn off a monitor after a specified period of inactivity. This also extends the monitor"s service life. Some monitors will also switch themselves off after a time period on standby.

Most modern monitors have two different indicator light colors wherein if video-input signal was detected, the indicator light is green and when the monitor is in power-saving mode, the screen is black and the indicator light is orange. Some monitors have different indicator light colors and some monitors have blinking indicator light when in power-saving mode.

Many monitors have other accessories (or connections for them) integrated. This places standard ports within easy reach and eliminates the need for another separate hub, camera, microphone, or set of speakers. These monitors have advanced microprocessors which contain codec information, Windows interface drivers and other small software which help in proper functioning of these functions.

Monitors that feature an aspect ratio greater than 2:1 (for instance, 21:9 or 32:9, as opposed to the more common 16:9, which resolves to 1.77:1).Monitors with an aspect ratio greater than 3:1 are marketed as super ultrawide monitors. These are typically massive curved screens intended to replace a multi-monitor deployment.

These monitors use touching of the screen as an input method. Items can be selected or moved with a finger, and finger gestures may be used to convey commands. The screen will need frequent cleaning due to image degradation from fingerprints.

Some displays, especially newer flat panel monitors, replace the traditional anti-glare matte finish with a glossy one. This increases color saturation and sharpness but reflections from lights and windows are more visible. Anti-reflective coatings are sometimes applied to help reduce reflections, although this only partly mitigates the problem.

Most often using nominally flat-panel display technology such as LCD or OLED, a concave rather than convex curve is imparted, reducing geometric distortion, especially in extremely large and wide seamless desktop monitors intended for close viewing range.

Newer monitors are able to display a different image for each eye, often with the help of special glasses and polarizers, giving the perception of depth. An autostereoscopic screen can generate 3D images without headgear.

A combination of a monitor with a graphics tablet. Such devices are typically unresponsive to touch without the use of one or more special tools" pressure. Newer models however are now able to detect touch from any pressure and often have the ability to detect tool tilt and rotation as well.

The option for using the display as a reference monitor; these calibration features can give an advanced color management control for take a near-perfect image.

Raw monitors are raw framed LCD monitors, to install a monitor on a not so common place, ie, on the car door or you need it in the trunk. It is usually paired with a power adapter to have a versatile monitor for home or commercial use.

A desktop monitor is typically provided with a stand from the manufacturer which lifts the monitor up to a more ergonomic viewing height. The stand may be attached to the monitor using a proprietary method or may use, or be adaptable to, a VESA mount. A VESA standard mount allows the monitor to be used with more after-market stands if the original stand is removed. Stands may be fixed or offer a variety of features such as height adjustment, horizontal swivel, and landscape or portrait screen orientation.

A fixed rack mount monitor is mounted directly to the rack with the flat-panel or CRT visible at all times. The height of the unit is measured in rack units (RU) and 8U or 9U are most common to fit 17-inch or 19-inch screens. The front sides of the unit are provided with flanges to mount to the rack, providing appropriately spaced holes or slots for the rack mounting screws. A 19-inch diagonal screen is the largest size that will fit within the rails of a 19-inch rack. Larger flat-panels may be accommodated but are "mount-on-rack" and extend forward of the rack. There are smaller display units, typically used in broadcast environments, which fit multiple smaller screens side by side into one rack mount.

A stowable rack mount monitor is 1U, 2U or 3U high and is mounted on rack slides allowing the display to be folded down and the unit slid into the rack for storage as a drawer. The flat display is visible only when pulled out of the rack and deployed. These units may include only a display or may be equipped with a keyboard creating a KVM (Keyboard Video Monitor). Most common are systems with a single LCD but there are systems providing two or three displays in a single rack mount system.

A panel mount computer monitor is intended for mounting into a flat surface with the front of the display unit protruding just slightly. They may also be mounted to the rear of the panel. A flange is provided around the screen, sides, top and bottom, to allow mounting. This contrasts with a rack mount display where the flanges are only on the sides. The flanges will be provided with holes for thru-bolts or may have studs welded to the rear surface to secure the unit in the hole in the panel. Often a gasket is provided to provide a water-tight seal to the panel and the front of the screen will be sealed to the back of the front panel to prevent water and dirt contamination.

An open frame monitor provides the display and enough supporting structure to hold associated electronics and to minimally support the display. Provision will be made for attaching the unit to some external structure for support and protection. Open frame monitors are intended to be built into some other piece of equipment providing its own case. An arcade video game would be a good example with the display mounted inside the cabinet. There is usually an open frame display inside all end-use displays with the end-use display simply providing an attractive protective enclosure. Some rack mount monitor manufacturers will purchase desktop displays, take them apart, and discard the outer plastic parts, keeping the inner open-frame display for inclusion into their product.

According to an NSA document leaked to Der Spiegel, the NSA sometimes swaps the monitor cables on targeted computers with a bugged monitor cable in order to allow the NSA to remotely see what is being displayed on the targeted computer monitor.

Van Eck phreaking is the process of remotely displaying the contents of a CRT or LCD by detecting its electromagnetic emissions. It is named after Dutch computer researcher Wim van Eck, who in 1985 published the first paper on it, including proof of concept. Phreaking more generally is the process of exploiting telephone networks.

Masoud Ghodrati, Adam P. Morris, and Nicholas Seow Chiang Price (2015) The (un)suitability of modern liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for vision research. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:303.

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

ASUS Eye Care Monitors Receive Most Number of TÜV Rheinland Low Blue-Light Emissions and Flicker-Free Certifications. ASUS Low Blue Light Monitors feature a OSD menu that allows you to access four different Blue Light Filter settings onscreen. ASUS Flicker-Free technology uses Smart Dynamic Backlight Adjustment to reduce flicker, this protects you from eye fatigue, irritation and strains.

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

To turn off the LCD backlight of Wio Terminal, simply define the LCD Backlight control pin 72Ul and pull it HIGH to turn on and pull it LOW to turn off:

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

Computer monitors are a must-have for PC users and hardcore gamers. Consumers may be looking at computer monitor buying guides and wondering just how much a typical computer monitor costs and the overall price range of displays.

Modern computer monitors can fluctuate wildly when it comes to price, with some models as cheap as $50 and others costing $1000 or more. In the past, the first computer with a screen was astronomically expensive, but thankfully monitor technology become more accessible, bringing the price down throughout the decades. The average computer monitor costs around $200 – $300. There are some features and functionalities that can severely impact the price so be sure to do some research so you make sure you’re getting the best cheap monitor if you have a lower budget.

There are a number of features and functionalities that can increase the overall price of a computer monitor, and that’s without adding accessories to your monitor like a webcam or monitor arm if you know how to mount a monitor.

Generally speaking, LCD displays are the cheapest type of modern computer monitor. LED displays, which are based on the same technology as their LCD cousins, tend to be slightly more expensive while OLED displays are the most expensive of all. The latter being due to the high-priced components that make up the OLED technology.

Modern computer monitors can boast resolutions as high as 8K, offering stunning and true-to-life visuals and graphics. 8K, and even 4K, displays feature newly adopted technological advancements. As such, the higher the resolution, the costlier the monitor. If you are looking to snag a high-quality monitor on the cheap, go for an HD display with a 1080p resolution.

If you are using your PC to stream content or to play graphically intensive games, then the refresh rate is an incredibly important consideration. The refresh rate indicates how often your monitor refreshes the screen. As for price, monitors with ultra-high refresh rates, above 120Hz, tend to be more expensive than displays with refresh rates of 75Hz or less.

The overall size of a computer monitor, and its width, can impact the overall price. Typically, ultrawide monitors and displays that are larger than 34-inches tend to be on the expensive side. This price continues to increase as the monitor size increases. Get the size that may cater better to your needs if you need the monitor for a specific task, like the best size monitor for gaming should help make your gameplay more efficient. Ultrawide monitors and larger-than-average monitors can significantly increase the viewing angle, which can be a useful benefit.

Size plays a huge part in getting the right viewing distance and angles, which you can learn more about in our resource article about how far to sit from a monitor, especially if it’s an Ultrawide monitor.

Certain monitors include additional features that can impact the price. These can include USB hubs, integrated stereo speakers, microphones, ergonomically designed frames, and more. Some monitors also include robust cable management systems, making for a tidy setup. We recommend making a “must-have” list of features before settling on your final purchase.

So, if the price is a problem for you and you’d rather have a better resolution without the high price tag, you may be interested in learning how to build a PC monitor. It’s easier than it sounds.

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

The Apple Studio Display is a series of LCD and CRT displays introduced in 1998 and marketed by Apple Computer. After the 1999 introduction of the widescreen Apple Cinema Display, the Apple Studio Display line ran concurrently until it was originally discontinued in 2004.

The first Apple display using LCD technology was known as the Apple Studio Display (15-inch flat panel). It was introduced at the 1998 Seybold Seminars Expo alongside the 300 MHz beige Power Macintosh G3 desktop and had an initial retail price of US$1,999.

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

Application for remote controling Volvo cars. Service monitoring, remote controled additional functions (like starting fuel heater, air condition, ..). Remote assistance in case there"s something wrong with the car or…

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

• QNED MiniLED TVs: By combining NanoCell and miniLED technology, our QNED MiniLED televisions deliver brilliantly bright colors and a higher contrast ratio for deeper blacks. It"s the ultimate in LCD TVs.

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

CRT (or cathode ray tube) TVs are the old kinds of TVs that older consoles were designed to output to. They typically accepted signals with a 15.7kHz scan rate under NTSC or PAL standards. They are usually preferred for gaming because of its better motion, response times, and lower input lag compared to LCD TVs. CRT TVs have scanlines which help reduce the pixelation of older games.

Shadow Mask - The most common variety of CRT TV, many variations in size and picture quality. Comes in two forms: Slot mask (shown here), and dot mask. Slot mask is more common for TVs and the dot mask for monitors.

Sony"s PVM/BVM series and NEC"s XM/XP series are considered god-tier. If you cannot find those specific models, look for presentation monitors, professional monitors, or broadcast monitors from any brand. If you search for "video monitor" on craigslist, you may have luck finding one. Sony Trinitrons are pretty easy to find, and they"re on the high-end of consumer-grade CRTs. Sharp, Toshiba, and Phillips higher-end CRTs are pretty close in quality, so don"t be afraid to pick one of those up. Make sure to test it before you buy and also check the back to see what ports it has. If you"re in North America, coax and composite (red, white, and yellow ports) are the most common, but you"ll get the best picture quality running your system through component ports (red, green, and blue video ports with red and white ports for audio). If a component is not available, look for S-video instead. It will look slightly worse than component, but since it is on a CRT, the picture will still look good.

If you are in a PAL region or Japan, look for a TV with RGB SCART or RGB JP-21 (same connector, but different signals). Note that just because a CRT has a SCART/JP-21 port, it doesn"t mean that it supports RGB. It could just be composite through a different connector. If you are in Japan, you can also look for D-Terminal on the back, which uses YPbPr instead of RGB (similar to the component cable in other NTSC regions). Just make sure to avoid "100Hz," widescreen (note: some European widescreen CRTs still can display native 15KHz, in which case, it is a good one to pick up), "high dot pitch," or "HD CRTs," as they tend to scale or distort the image in some way like modern HDTVs, with a few exceptions. This also applies to NTSC regions (minus "100Hz"). This does not apply to video monitors, as mentioned in the paragraph above.

CRT monitors are CRT displays that are intended to be used from a PC, typically being driven by an RGBHV signal with a 31kHz or higher scan rate through a 15-pin VGA cable.

There are also hacks, both software, and hardware, to allow 15kHz output. But the monitor must also support it, and most of them aren"t written for modern OSs. Careful there.

Horizontal resolution is only limited by video bandwidth, so you can set it really high and scale output to fit, and the CRT will display it 4:3. This is useful for 240p modes where you can avoid having to have different custom resolutions for each game and not have any visible scaling issues due to individual horizontal pixels being smaller than your monitor"s dot pitch.

Keep in mind your vertical refresh rate and vertical resolution must stay within your monitor"s horizontal frequency limits, e.g. if your monitor"s limits are 31kHz to 70kHz and you are trying to set a display mode for PAL games, you will find that 480p at 50Hz is not possible as that is 25kHz, you will need to increase the vertical resolution to around 576p to make it 31kHz.

Given the many advantages that CRT monitors possess, they make ideal displays for emulation, particularly for 5th-gen games and below. However, to get the most out of them, some extra steps may be necessary. For instance, some games used interlaced modes, which without a shader results in ugly deinterlacing artifacts. Also, even at 480p, games that ran at 240p and below look blocky and pixellated, not to mention correcting the aspect ratio for games using non-square pixels results in scaling artifacts, just as on an LCD. The scaling issues can be dealt with using a superwide 240p resolution, but that requires using 120hz with black frame insertion, and games that use 480i get downsampled to 240p, making it a less than ideal solution in those cases, although it does have lower latency due lower frame times between vsync.

To correctly display games that need both 240p and 480i resolutions, the solution lies in creating a custom superwide 3840x480 modeline, combining it with a shader that scanlines 240p content and interlaces 480i content, and using both through RetroArch, essentially turning your monitor into an extremely sharp CRT TV. On Nvidia cards, the custom modeline can easily be set within your graphics card"s drivers. On AMD, it requires the use of third-party software, such as Custom Resolution Utility. Simply add a detailed resolution with the exact settings shown on the picture, restart your computer, and the monitor should now be able to make use of the new modeline. As for the shader, hunterk"s gives you black lines that will oscillate when given an image with 400 or higher vertical resolution, emulating the behavior of 15kHz displays. There are also some shader presets that combine the interlacing shader with tvout-tweaks and image-adjustment for accurate RGB signal emulation and color controls, and also some that utilize Themaister"s NTSC shader for composite/s-video emulation.

Once you have the new modeline set and have the shader in hand, open your RetroArch configuration file of choice, set the fullscreen resolution to 3840x480, aspect ratio to 8, aspect ratio index to 19, and windowed fullscreen to false. Adjust your monitor"s image as necessary. It may be necessary to raise your monitor"s brightness somewhat or increase color intensity to deal with the loss of brightness from having pure black scanlines. Some monitors, such as the NEC/Mitsubishi SuperBright series, have settings that increase the monitor"s brightness without compromising black level or color temperature significantly.

240p test suite - Test suite for properly configuring 240p. Designed mostly for CRTs, but will work with any monitor that supports 240p. Available as a homebrew program for several consoles.

tft lcd monitor wiki pricelist

The Mann Co. Store is an in-game micropayment service included in the Mann-Conomy Update. The store allows players to purchase in-game items such as cosmetics, weapons, and action items using money stored in their Steam Wallet. Creators of community-contributed items receive a percentage of sales for anything they"ve created. Aside from the main in-game interface, purchases can be made through this Wiki.